|There is more information available on this subject at United States Marine Corps on the English Wikipedia.|
The United States Marine Corps was the naval infantry arm of the United States of America and the United States Naval Service.
It was established on November 10, 1775 at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as a special military force specializing in ship-to-ship combat, amphibious landings, and any other mission assigned by the President.
It was a very small and selective fighting force, at its peak numbering only six divisions in World War II and reducing up to four divisions shortly thereafter.
The US Marine Corps was one of the major contributors to the UN Marine Corps, and therefore a major contributor to the UNSC Marine Corps. Although it is unlikely that the USMC is still active in the Halo universe, numerous traits of its culture and organization exist in the UNSCMC. These traits include:
- Organization: Like the USMC, the UNSCMC organizes its units into division sized forces, which are subdivided into regiment. Most other military forces of old Earth were subdivided into "Brigade" sized units, not divisions. UNSCMC units are further divided into battalions, companies, and platoons, in that order. The UNSC Marine Corps also uses Marine Expeditionary Forces (MEF's) for organization.
- Rank: Every known UNSCMC rank corresponds directly to a USMC rank, and the enlisted and officer ranks that have been described imply that exactly the same insignia are used, as well.
- Semper Fi: The Latin motto used by the USMC, short for Semper Fidelis (Always Faithful) or (Forever Faithful) is also used by the UNSCMC.
- Dog tags: The dog tags worn by the UNSCMC personnel resemble those worn by the USMC personnel.
- "Ooh Rah": A motivational call of the USMC, often said by Marines of the UNSCMC. Sometimes varying as Hoo-rah or Ooh-Rah, unlike the UNSC Army which uses "Hoo-Ah", "Hoo-Uh" or "HUA" (Acronym for "Heard, Understood & Acknowledged!") distinctly differentiating themselves from the Marines and other UNSC Services, while the Navy uses "Hoo-Yah".
Pre-World War History
The United States Marine Corps was formed as the Continental Marines on November 10, 1775 as naval infantry, and was comprised of two battalions. Their primary role was to be responsible for the security of the ships they served on, to repulse boarding attacks and to prevent or end mutinies. They were also used in raiding parties at sea and on shore.
The first action United States Marines would see as an official branch of the United States Military was during the Barbary War of 1801-05. Reacting to privateers by a collection of North-African states known as the Barbary States, a force of 10 Marines and 300 Arab and European Mercenaries intended to capture Tripoli. Although they did not reach their intended target, they did win the subsequent war, leading to a peace treaty.
The next action the USMC would see would be the War of 1812 against the British. Marines momentarily delayed the British advance to Washington DC during the Battle of Blandensburg and were central to the defeat of the British during the Defense of New Orleans.
After the end of the War of 1812, the Marines would take part in the Seminole Wars of 1835 and the Mexican–American War of 1846-48 and expeditionary roles in the Caribbean, Key West, West Africa, the Falkland Islands and Sumatra. During the American Civil War of 1861-65, almost half of the Marine Corps commanding officers would join the Confederate Military, and form the Confederate States Marine Corps. The USMC also took part in several national interventions including Japan, Korea, Hawaii, Egypt and Panama. They were central to the offensive in Cuba during the Spanish–American War of 1898 and participated in the Philippine–American War, the Chinese Boxer Rebellion, the Cuban Pacifications, the Pedicaris Incident in Morocco, Veracruz, Haiti and other nations. They also took part in the Banana Wars, a series of conflicts in Central America.
The World Wars
During World War I, United States Marines served a central role in the United State's entry into the war. Unlike the French and British armies, the Marines had a pool of veteran officers and soldiers and a relatively smaller expansion. During this time, the Marines fought the celebrated Battle of Belleau Wood. During this battle, the Marines won decisively and drove the Germans from the woods. This earned the respect of the Germans, who considered the Marines an elite unit of Stormtrooper quality. It was also during this battle that Marine and American forces reported that the nickname Teufel Hunden was coined, which—according to the sources, meant Devil Dogs. Regardless of its origins, the term stuck and has been a part of Marine Culture ever since.
During World War II, the Marine Corps primarily saw action against the Japanese during the Pacific Campaign and were the major ground forces during the island-to-island combat of the campaign. The air arm of the Marine Corps first saw action during WWII, flying close air support and air-to-air missions against Japanese Naval and Army Air Forces. Marines defeated the Japanese at the pivotal battles of Guadalcanal, Saipan, Iwo Jima, Okinawa and others. During the Battle of Iwo Jima, Marines planted the flag atop Mount Suribachi; this moment was immortalized in a famous photograph.
Post-WarAfter World War II, the Marine Corps was involved in combat in the Korean War, fighting during the Battle of Inchon that resulted in the collapse of the North Korean lines and their pursuit to the Yalu River until the Peoples Republic of China entered the war. During the Vietnam conflict, Marines were engaged in their longest war to date. During the Vietnam War, they worked as advisers to the Republic Of Vietnam Marine Corps, assisting them in counter-insurgency techniques. Although withdrawn from 1971, they assisted the evacuation of Saigon and the attempted rescue of the crew of the Merchant Marine vessel Mayagüez. They also took part in the Invasion of Panama and Grenada. On October 23, 1983, Marines stationed in Lebanon were the victims of a suicide vehicle bombing at their headquarters, causing 221 deaths. This is the largest number of peace-time casualties for the Marines and eventually led to the withdrawal of American troops from the region.
In 1990, the Marines saved thousands of lives evacuating British, French, and American Nationals in the wake of the Liberian Civil War. Marine forces were also the core of Operation Desert Shield in Saudi Arabia as American, NATO, and other Coalition forces prepared for the possible liberation of Kuwait in Operation Desert Storm. They later provided the bulk of security for UN Humanitarian Relief in Somalia.
After the beginning of the 21st century, the United States Marines were some of the first conventional forces in Afghanistan, after the attacks on September 11, 2001. A little more than a year later, Marines from the I Marine Expeditionary Force and other coalition forces assisted in the invasion and liberation of Saddam Husein's Iraq.
Although never directly stated, more than likely, the U.S. Marines were involved in one or more of the many wars that began to spring up on Earth during the later years of the 21st century and the 22nd century.
It was in the era of the Continental Marines the nickname "Leatherneck" was adopted. The Marines would wear leather collars to provide protection from slashing attacks as they boarded enemy ships. In the 20th and 21st Centuries, the Marines used this name regularly.
Shortly after the American entrance into the First World War, the term "Devil Dog" (Teufel Hunden in German) was given to the Marines by the Germans due to their ferocious fighting during the Battle of Belleau Wood in June 1918. Also the Marines are known for being the first in the US Military to engage in any warfare coining the term "First to Fight".
- The United States Marine Corps is older than the United States itself.