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|Halo 4 Sangheili Major|
7.4 feet (230 cm) - 8.6 feet (260 cm)
139 kilograms (310 lb) - 178 kilograms (390 lb)
Gray, Black, Brown
Humanoid/reptilian body structure; quadruple hinged mandibles with dog-like teeth; binary vascular system.
|Military and political information|
- “On the blood of our fathers, on the blood of our sons... we swore to uphold the Covenant!”
The Sangheili (Latin Macto cognatus, meaning "I glorify my kin") are a saurian species of fierce, proud, strong, agile and intelligent warriors and skilled combat tacticians. Sangheili are named after their home planet, Sanghelios. Known to Humans as Elites, due to their adeptness and skill in combat, the Sangheili formed the military backbone of the Covenant for almost the entirety of its existence. They had a very strong rivalry with the Brutes, which finally became open hatred during the Great Schism, and the conclusion of the Human-Covenant war.
Originally a founding member of the unified conglomerate of races known as the Covenant, they later led the Covenant breakaway faction known as the Covenant Separatists, who sided with the humans against their former allies, due to the fact that the Prophet of Truth and the Prophet of Mercy had ordered the genocide of the entire Sangheili race. This was established after the assassination of the Prophet of Regret at the hands of the "Demon". It was the Sangheili who were ultimately held responsible for the Prophet of Regret's death, and were seen as "unfit" to continue to guard the Prophets. The Prophets sought to achieve this through use of the other Covenant races, primarily the Brutes. The aftermath of the Great Schism formed the bedrock of the Covenant's ultimate collapse.
Development of Civilization and the Covenant
The Sangheili home world, Sanghelios, had at one point been visited by or had been in contact with the mysterious Forerunners. They revered the objects these "gods" had left, and considered tampering with them a heresy beyond any other. In 938 B.C.E. they encountered the San 'Shyuum (who would later be known as "Prophets" by Humans), a race that also worshiped the Forerunners as Gods, but had utilized Forerunner technology for their own needs, believing that the technology had been left behind by the Gods as gifts for their children. This sparked a war between the two races over how to treat the relics. Even though the Sangheili were much more physically imposing and numerous, they suffered extreme casualties under the sheer power of the Prophets' Dreadnought, a surviving Keyship, and by 876 B.C.E. even the most devout had to admit their survival depended on the reconstitution of their own Forerunner technology. This, of course, led both sides to an agreement that ended with the decommissioning of the Forerunner Dreadnought and a shaky alliance that eventually expanded into the Covenant.
The Prophets helped assuage the Sangheili by informing them of the Great Journey: By seeking out the Holy Rings scattered throughout the galaxy and utilizing them, a Great Journey would begin. This Great Journey would transform believers into godlike beings, while providing salvation for their doomed existence of fighting with the Flood. The Sangheili then became the bodyguards of the physically less imposing Prophets, who would search the galaxy for the Halos. The Writ of Union was drawn up in 852 B.C.E. in order to codify the Covenant. Its first canto clearly outlines the nature of the Covenant from the perspective of the Prophets.
Being one of the few races in the Covenant to achieve space-faring status without outside intervention, the Sangheili interaction with the San 'Shyuum was initially strained due to memories of the recent war. However, the two sides later formed a prosperous relationship, eventually laying the foundation for the modern Covenant hegemony.
During their membership in the Covenant, the Sangheili were technological and societal equals of the San 'Shyuum. However, for a significant period, they found themselves as the dominant military muscle for the entire Covenant structure - hardly surprising given the warlike, feudal nature of their homeworld, Sanghelios. What was surprising was the cyclical stability this feudal society was able to offer. Technological and medical advancement prospered, and the intelligent, aggressive Sangheili were peerless until they encountered the San 'Shyuum. With exchange of goods and ideas, the Sangheili adapted to and eventually embraced the Covenant religion, grafting its tenets into their own belief system.
- Main article: Human-Covenant War
When the Prophets declared war on a previously unknown species called "Humans", the Sangheili followed their lead without question. After a period of time, however, even though the Prophets insisted that the Humans were "unclean beings" that must be eliminated from the galaxy, some seasoned Sangheili veterans began to question the refusal of the Prophets to even consider accepting the Humans into the Covenant.[Notes 1] These Sangheili seemed to believe that Humans, although physically weak, at least compared to themselves, were brave and even honorable. Some even believed that the Humans were equal to them - a considerable step for a Sangheili, or any member of the Covenant to make. These few Sangheili admired how willing and brave the Humans were when fighting to survive against outright extinction, they even respected to a certain degree those few soldiers who were willing to stay behind and cover their comrades from a Covenant attack. A few Sangheili even had some degree of disrespect for the Prophets before the Great Schism.
The Great Schism
- Main article: Great Schism
These events led the entire Sangheili species to secede from the Covenant, forming the Covenant Separatists. They were aided by a few of the member-races within the Covenant, such as many Unggoy and most Mgalekgolo, even though many apparently ended up siding with the Covenant Loyalists despite the Sangheili's efforts. The secession included a movement to destroy the treacherous Brutes and Prophets, and the destruction of the Flood at all costs, eventually resulting in the Sangheili's alliance with the Humans, persuaded by the Arbiter's counsel.
It is known that this civil war stretched from the Human homeworld, Earth, all the way back to Sanghelios as the Sangheili attempted to wrest their share of the hegemony away from their new-found enemies. The Jiralhanae stepped in to fill the military void in ever increasing numbers, sensing the vacuum and opportunity left by the departure of the Sangheili.
Fall of the Covenant Empire
Finally, after the Battle of Earth, the Sangheili and Humans managed to stop and kill the Prophet of Truth, effectively dissolving the Covenant. However, the Sangheili and Humans were forced to deal with a more massive threat: the Flood. At the end of the battle the Arbiter and Master Chief activate the newly constructed replacement Halo ring, supposedly ending the Flood threat forever.
After the Human-Covenant War ended, there has been speculation of competition between the UNSC and the Sangheili when it came to examining Forerunner ruins and relics like the Artifact. However, by March 2553 the Sangheili and Humans remain friendly to one another as evidenced by the conversation between Thel 'Vadam and Lord Terrence Hood. All the Sangheili who fought in the Battle of Installation 00 agreed to depart Earth and return to their home planet, Sanghelios, to ensure its safety.
As the Great Schism went on, the Sangheili continued their fight against the Jiralhanae. This was proving largely unsuccessful and the Sangheili were accepting serious losses. Without the Covenant to provide them with ships, technology, and repairs, they slowly lost warships and technologies they couldn't repair or replace. After the San 'Shyuum went into hiding, the Sangheili began to prevail against the Jiralhanae, who in turn began to fight amongst themselves. Despite the hatred for Jiralhane the Sangheili employed Jiralhane who stayed at the Sangheili's side. Having abandoned the Covenant, the Sangheili were now in a state of mass confusion in regards to their religion, because even though the San 'Shyuum lied to them, they had still given them purpose for their actions. The Sangheili were still religiously devoted to the Forerunners and were attempting to uncover their meaning.
Following the Great Schism, the Sangheili found themselves undergoing a major societal change. They were used to the San 'Shyuum providing everything: communications, food, technology, and a purpose. They now had a fortress world with no one to run it, and for the first time in thousands of years, they had to act on their own. Since they were used to importing most of their food, power shifted on Sanghelios from cities to the countryside, with formerly backwater states gaining power and prestige due to their fertile farmland. The Sangheili had a fleet, but without Huragok or the skills to repair them on their own, any damage their ships sustained were nearly impossible to repair. The same went for any technology they possessed. They regressed to their keep-systems, with Kaidons and Elders gathering ships and weapons to prevent them from falling into enemy hands. A few Unggoy and Jiralhanae remained on the planet and continued to serve the Sangheili.
In January 2553, the Arbiter Thel 'Vadam began to visit the various states to propose a peace treaty with humanity. He argued that too many Sangheili had been lost in the Great Schism, and that Sanghelios had to be rebuilt. This proposal was not well received by all, and civil unrest ensued. Dissident Sangheili began to join the Servants of Abiding Truth, an old orthodox religious group who opposed the Arbiter led by Avu Med 'Telcam.
In February 2553, Fleet Admiral Terrence Hood arrived on Sanghelios to formalize the cease-fire with the Arbiter. They met in the state of Vadam and formally ended hostilities. Meanwhile, the Servants were gathering many faithful every day and were being armed by the Office of Naval Intelligence, who wanted to divide the Sangheili. Furthermore, they were able to acquire an intact warship, the frigate Unflinching Resolve, and were preparing to stage a coup to kill the Arbiter and his supporters.
After a Jiralhanae uprising in Ontom, right outside the Servants' headquarters, 'Telcam decided the time had come to begin the rebellion. He and his supporters gathered their ships, vehicles and troops and attacked Vadam. The Arbiter was winning at first, since fewer keeps joined the rebellion than 'Telcam had thought. The tide turned when the Arbiter allowed Kilo-Five to land on Sanghelios to search for Evan Phillips in the Temple of Abiding Truth. Many Sangheili viewed this as a desecration and joined 'Telcam's side. The Servants quickly surrounded Vadam Keep and began a siege. The tide turned once more when Admiral Hood arrived in orbit with the UNSC Infinity and offered the Arbiter aid, which he grudgingly accepted. The Infinity shot down 'Telcam's ship Defender of Faith and fired a MAC round directly into the besieging forces outside Vadam Keep. The siege quickly became a rout as the Arbiter counter-attacked. 'Telcam and the Servants were able to escape with three frigates intact, along with as many troops, vehicles and supplies the ships could hold, to New Llanelli. The rebellion was crushed for the time being, and the Arbiter remained in power on Sanghelios, however in a weakened state.
Sangheili are generally between 2.2 meters tall and 2.6 meters tall including helmet and armor, have two fingers and two thumbs on each hand which are much larger than human fingers and thumbs, which make the Sangheili look ungainly when wielding small human weapons such as the pistol. They look vaguely like lizards or theropods, except for their jaws. When wearing armor, they take on a shark-like look because of the "fins" on the sides of their helmets. Their jaws are made up of four separate mandibles attached to their face, similar to those found on the lower jaws of snakes from Earth. The Sangheili are attributed for great strength and intelligence, and are praised for their bravery and honor. Sangheili warriors augment these natural abilities further through use of Energy Shields integrated into their armor. Depending upon rank and mission objective, they are commonly seen in battle with Plasma Rifles, Needlers, Covenant Carbines, Needle Rifles and sometimes, if they are higher ranked, Energy Swords. Sangheili employ coffin-like Orbital Insertion Pods as well as Phantom and Spirit Dropships for military transit purposes and rapid-response operations. Historically, Sangheili have followed the Covenant mentality of maintaining hatred towards Humanity, believing them to be an affront to their religion and a challenge towards the Great Journey. However there are signs that this stance is being slowly abandoned as seen in the tentative alliance between the two enemies, forming the core allied faction at the end of Halo 2 and during Halo 3.
In Halo: Combat Evolved, upper ranks have a Forerunner symbol adorning their back. It is not known if the symbol varies from rank to rank. In Halo 3, Sangheili have Forerunner symbols on their arms and on the sides of their torso.
Anatomy and Physiology
Sangheili are muscular and stand around between 2.2 meters tall and 2.6 metres tall. Their jaws are quadruple-hinged, with an upper jaw and four mandible-like lips. With few exceptions, these mandibles are generally shown with six teeth each; many sources also depict an additional large fang on the tips of each mandible. Anywhere from eight to ten broader teeth have been observed mounted on the central jaw structure. In Halo Wars and Halo: Reach, the Sangheili are depicted with more numerous, more feral-looking teeth. In the Halo Legends short The Duel, the Sangheili Han, Fal 'Chavamee, and Roe, keep their mandibles closed, using only the front two joints of their lower mandibles to speak, giving them a more humanoid appearance. While it may not actually be canon to the Halo franchise, it is possible that the Sangheili (save Ripa 'Moramee) don't usually use all four of their mandibles, except when breathing heavily; an example would be during combat situations, though this has yet to be confirmed. Sangheili smell with the use of two nostrils, each a little in front and below the eye socket. Given their predatory nature, a Sangheili's sense of smell is likely very developed. However it must be noted that as a distinct race they may have omnivourus tendencies. The mandibles appear to be made for gripping small prey, which insinuates that the Sangheili evolved from a quadroped race and that they are much larger than their natural prey. Their hands are tetradactyl, having four digits; two middle fingers, and two opposing thumbs on the outside for grasping. Their legs are digitigrade, with short upper and lower legs, and elongated tarsals, using the distal and intermediate phalanges to support their weight when walking. This arrangement possibly allows them to run very quickly and jump large distances, compared to ordinary humans and other Covenant races. Their superior agility may also be attributed to their homeworld's higher gravity; the additional strength required to move normally in a high-gravity environment would likely cause them to be more powerful in lower gravity situations. They also appear to have a double set of pectoral muscles, which contribute to their incredible strength.
Sangheili have at least two hearts, which circulate indigo-colored blood through their veins; the coloration is most likely caused by bimetallic hemoglobin, possibly cobalt-iron, whereas the crimson-blooded Humans possess monometallic iron-based hemoglobin. Though there are many theories on the subject, the chemical formula(e) of Sangheili hemoglobin is still unknown. It is assumed that they breathe oxygen, as they can breathe the same atmosphere as Humans without any trouble, and their homeworld has a nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere, similar to Earth's.
Male Sangheili have grayish-brown skin (which in Halo 2 looks spotted or scaly), and the majority of Sangheili have either dark blue, black, or brown eyes, although there are a few exceptions. It has been theorized that the reason Sangheili seem to have dark, blue eyes is because they wear eye coverings (which provide their in-game HUD). This hypothesis comes largely from the Arbiter's appearance - when standing before the High Council in his armor, his eyes were dark, but after his armor was removed, his eyes became a much lighter brown—and is also supported by the fact that in Halo: Combat Evolved, a Sangheili's eye color is always the same color as their armor. Sangheili have laterally-positioned eyes with slit-shaped pupils, large irises, and horizontal eyelids, though these traits can only be seen in Halo 3 - Sangheili in Halo 2 have all black eyes with no pupils except for the Arbiter, and in Halo: Combat Evolved they never blink. However,this is probably result of animation.
Female Sangheili however, have an almost human appearance like how they often (If not always) have braided dark colored hair. They have a dark tanned skin and human like, almond shape eyes. A distinguishing property that they have is that they have no visible mandibles, unlike their male counterpart, and have an actual set of human like jaws. This can be proven wrong however as Halo Legends is shown to be non-cannon, and is possible that actual females look nothing like this sort.
In Halo: Contact Harvest, it is mentioned that the Sangheili are strange for bipedal species in that their knees do not bend backwards but forwards. This unusual hinging does not impair their mobility on ground but climbing, especially on standard ladders, is difficult for them.
- “Although Elites are naturally very intelligent, their culture's long dependence on a military-industrial schema has led to an emphasis on might over science. In some regards, the advent of the Covenant made this position easier-allowing the Elites to concentrate even more singularly on military endeavors, while Prophets took care of science and technology.”
The Sangheili are intelligent and can demonstrate this in battle. Sangheili are normally on the move when fighting, constantly running and ducking, strafing and dodging when firing at the enemy. It should be noted that not all Sangheili make use of cover because of their superior strength; these are the Sangheili who hold the ranks of either Zealot or Councilor. The Sangheili seem to employ complex strategy only if it either improves success in battle, or it allows them to inflict more casualties on their enemies. In ship-to-ship combat, despite having the advantage of long range weapons such as plasma torpedoes, the Sangheili prefer to maneuver in close in an attempt to board their opponent's vessel. These Sangheili charge their enemies with reckless aggression, regardless of any damage they sustain; only very seldom do they admit temporary defeat. They are quite capable of luring their enemies into traps by falling back into cover; as the enemy approaches, a Sangheili will spring from its position and land a massive melee hit on the unsuspecting opponent, and is especially even more dangerous if the hiding Sangheili is carrying an Energy Sword due to the weapon's lethal melee power.
The Sangheili are competent tacticians, known for their ferocity and decisive thinking. This is shown to be true in space during ship-to-ship combat, even when horribly outnumbered; they can win the fight with only few losses. An example of this is the Battle above Installation 00, when Truth's fleet outnumbered Sangheili forces three-to-one, yet the Sangheili prevailed with at least the Assault Carrier Shadow of Intent. However it should be noted that the Sangheili received and possessed ship technologies from the Prophet's study of Forerunner technology, perhaps a century or several centuries more advanced than that of Humanity. Examples include advanced reactor technologies with power outputs several orders of magnitude greater than Human reactor technologies, powerful shields capable of withstanding up to 3 MAC impacts, highly effective point defence laser turrets capable of fending off sizeable barrages of Archer Missiles and nuclear ordinance, and super-accurate Plasma Torpedoes and Energy projectors. Due to the lack of shielding on Human vessels, these plasma weapons were capable of outright destroying or disabling most Humans vessels in a single hit. The performance of their sub-light engines also far outstripped the manoeuvring capabilities of Human vessels. Due to the vast technology gap, the tactical and strategic intellect of the Sangheili with respect to Humans cannot be ascertained.
There were incidences, however, of smaller Human fleets obliterating much larger Sangheili fleets such as Admiral Patterson's victory over Voro Nar 'Mantakree's initial fleet over Onyx. This, combined with Admiral Preston J. Cole's repeated victories over Sangheili fleets throughout his career with numbers to offset the Covenant's massive technological advantage, as well as the fashion in which the Sangheili lost over two thirds of their entire invasion fleet over Reach to nothing more than ablative tactics, gives reason to cast doubt on the Sangheili's actual mastery of their own technology. For example, Cortana points out that had they known the extent of their own Slipspace technology, they could have simply bypassed Reach's orbital defenses by appearing in-atmosphere. Indeed, this also appears to happen between the Sangheili and the Jiralhanae. Although the two possess similar ships, the Sangheili possess slightly more sophisticated technology which gave them an edge over their Jiralhanae counterparts, such as the Counter Guidance Signal technology used to disrupt the guidance of plasma torpedoes. The Jiralhanae's grasp of this technology in comparison to the Sangheili's was poor. 
However, their dominance over the Jiralhanae is more likely due to the Sangheili having much more experience with ship to ship combat. At the time of the Great Schism, very few Jiralhanae Shipmasters had ever commanded warships, while their Sangheili counterparts had years if not decades of experience in that field.
As much as Sangheili are, for the most part, competent when it comes to combat tactics and battle plans, their code of honor does get in the way of it as they have shown a preference for close combat with their foes, and the majority of their weaponry is suited for short-ranged fighting. The Energy Sword, the most prized weapon of the Sangheili, is the strongest example of this. Swords are often carried and used as primary weapons on the battlefield by Sangheili Zealots and other superior officers, and although devastating in hand-to-hand combat, are useless at long range.
The Sangheili practices of commanders leading from the front and distinguishing leaders through colored armor has resulted in a very high attrition rate for Sangheili commanders. In many battles, Zealots have been killed early in the fighting (such as Noga 'Putumee), leaving their forces leaderless and uncoordinated. UNSC snipers have been specifically trained to pick out and eliminate high-ranking Sangheili. The Sangheili tradition of promotion through feats of arms on the battlefield has sometimes placed individuals of questionable tactical and strategic skill, such as Ripa 'Moramee, into high-ranking positions, purely because of their ability to kill their enemies personally. However, it should be noted that this isn't common and certain Sangheili such as Thel 'Vadam and Rtas 'Vadum are brilliant tacticians.
What the Sangheili consider to be dishonorable has also limited their flexibility in battle. Being wounded is considered a dishonor by the Sangheili, and it has been seen that most Sangheili go berserk upon having their blood spilled and charge straight at their enemies for revenge. Others, such as Jora 'Konaree, have chosen to kill themselves after being seriously wounded in battle. The preference of most Sangheili to die rather than live wounded has resulted in unnecessary casualties. Retreat is viewed as an even greater dishonor, and many Sangheili have doomed themselves to be killed rather than retreat. The UNSC and Jiralhanae has very frequently attempted to take advantage of the Sangheili concept of honor to lure them into traps. Examples of this include Battle of Delta Halo where Tartarus killed many Elites with the Fist of Rukt, Operation: FIRST STRIKE, Kurt's final actions in the Battle of Onyx, the Battle of Alpha Base, and Cole's Last Stand at Psi Serpentis. After the fall of the Covenant, the Sangheili's religious, superstitious, and political views have somewhat changed and have led to the realization that many of these beliefs are unnecessary and zealous rather than honorable. Although it was not favored, the Sangheili began taking after Human customs such as understanding blindly charging is in no way beneficial compared to finding a tactful solution, taking away the advantage enemies like the UNSC and Jiralhanae have attempted to use against them. This is something that is becoming more and more beneficial to the Sangheili, both culturally and militarily.
The Sangheili consider most other species to be inferior to them, both culturally and in fighting skill. Although Sangheili are naturally very intelligent, their culture's long dependence on a military-industrial scheme has led to an emphasis on might over science. In some regards, the advent of the Covenant made this position easier-allowing the Sangheili to concentrate even more mono-manically on military endeavors, while Prophets took care of science and technology. Despite this, their adeptness at using and creating technology is evident. It is probable that they designed the Covenant Cruiser themselves. They demonstrated their superiority at space combat in the battle with the Brutes over Installation 00.
Promotion in the Covenant military is by merit; a Covenant soldier must succeed to advance among the ranks. Success is often measured in scalps. A Zealot, for example, has personally slaughtered thousands of individuals to reach that status.
Raised from childhood to be warriors, other societal roles are treated as secondary endeavors or even hobbies, and are not honored at all. Elites are skilled in the usage of most Covenant weapons. One interesting example of this martial focus is that only aristocrats are allowed to wield swords and that sword-wielders are then no longer eligible for marriage; however, they may breed with any female they choose, married or otherwise, to ensure successful transmission of "swordsman" genes.
In many ways, the Sangheili are much like humans. They communicate, are loyal to their superiors and comrades, become protective of their troops and become angry and vengeful if other Sangheili are killed. They fear very little, taking great pride in an ancient, honor-laden code. Even when mortally wounded, the Sangheili still charge towards the enemy in a doomed last minute attack. Sangheili honor also dictates that they always be the first ones into a battle, and to never allow themselves to be captured alive. The more honorable captured Sangheili typically commit suicide while in prison to retain some measure of honor; oftentimes when they are freed those who have not are executed anyway, as was the case with one of Thel Vadam's ancestors. However, escaping or staging an uprising is acceptable, by the same example.
Respect and Honor
The Sangheili display respect and admiration for honorable fighters, whether they are allies of the Sangheili or not. It is not uncommon for the Sangheili to have such an admiration for their adversaries. Sangheili respect and revere veterans and often follow their lead. Their history is rife with victorious combatants welcoming the defeated enemies' remaining forces into their own arm, provided of course that they fought with honor. During the Unggoy Rebellion, the most tenacious of the Unggoy who survived the conflict were admitted for the first time into previously all-Sangheili forces, much to the Prophets' discontent. It is most likely that survivors of this group of Unggoy were among the Unggoy supporting the Sangheili during the Great Schism, out of respect, and dislike of the Covenant.
The Sangheili code of honor appears quite similar to Japanese Bushido, sharing concepts such as skill in combat (with an emphasis on swordsmanship), loyalty to master and family/clan, and views on death. Both systems promote death in battle as being the most honorable and proper way to die. If a warrior is critically injured, incapacitated, or captured, the only acceptable recourse is to commit ritualistic suicide, ensuring one's honor is kept intact. This was of such importance to Sangheili warriors that even if they were incapable of killing themselves, they requested the assistance of their fellow Sangheili in doing so.
Despite their martial nature, the Sangheili have reservations to the spilling of one's own blood. This is an extension of the belief that the blood of a warrior is his essence (honor); thus, to spill one's blood is to lose one's honor. As a result, in Sangheili culture, doctors are seen by many as the lowest members of society because they "..make [their] living slicing and causing another Sangheili to bleed without honor." This meant that the only 'honorable' way for a Sangheili to be injured or bleed out is from combat with the enemy. This belief also makes visiting a doctor very shameful for some Sangheili.
It is believed among the Sangheili that a weapon is only to be drawn if it is to be used, because a drawn weapon "demands blood."
Sangheili government appears to be a feudal meritocracy, and is partially democratic, as elders of different clans rule different areas. The ruler of these areas, a Kaidon, is elected by a group of council elders that reside in that area. If a council elder believes that his vote was "ill advised" or "had second thoughts", it was considered a tradition for council elders to initiate some form of attack, such as sending assassins, against the Kaidon in order "...to test the true merit of [the] ruler's martial abilities." The belief was that "a Kaidon who could not defend himself was not a true leader." Should the attack fail, the responsible elder will be executed immediately, and his family will be killed. However, punishment for this form of heresy was usually flexible. As such, if the elder did something honorable, such as attack the Kaidon himself, or attempted to make a final stand against the Kaidon, then he would probably have managed to save his family from certain death, although they might still be banished.
Family history and lineage are greatly valued, with each family having their own unique "Battle Poem" detailing the deeds and actions of its members during times of war. These "epics" may have influenced the recitation of war poetry among the Mgalekgolo, due to their deep respect for Sangheili. It is theorized that Sangheili males are sent into service as warriors and soldiers, as no female Sangheili have been seen in combat roles. Females are trained from a young age to fight alongside the males but are kept home to tend to their respective houses. This training allows th Sangheili to have a potent home guard should an attack on their homeworld ever make it past the males fighting on the front line
Sangheili warriors form very close-knitted relationships, referring to their comrades as "brothers" and remaining intensely loyal to them. This loyalty is shown in the custom of grieving after the death of a fallen comrade, a ritual which includes prayer for the dead warrior.
In some clans, Sangheili children are raised in "common rooms" to ensure that all start on an equal footing and progress in rank by merit of their abilities. Members of some Sangheili clans rarely know their true fathers, and are usually raised by a maternal uncle instead. This may be a method of preventing status from being inherited in order to force children to make their own way in the world so they actively work for and earn advancement. However, as some children's fathers were Swordsmen who were granted the right to reproduce with any number of female Sangheili they desire, the use of a maternal uncle as a fatherlike figure may have also been used to allow children to be raised equally. Sangheili believe that copulation without regard for the bloodline is uncultured. A popular pastime for Sangheili children is to hunt small rat-like creatures that live on their homeworld.
The Sangheili place great value in their names, and it is considered both a privilege and an honor for only those proved worthy. The Sangheili generally consider humans to be nameless (one notable exception being the Spartans encountered in the battlefield, whom they exclusively refer to as "Demons"), and resent that the humans have assigned the label "Elite" to them (although they have been given many other names far more derogatory, such as squid-head, split lip, hinge-head, etc.). The word "Elite" is often transposed as an English translation of their own name in-game and in other media.
The surname of each individual comes from their lineage. Thel 'Vadam, for example, was from the Vadam lineage. Each lineage has its own state on Sanghelios, and each Sangheili from that state adopts the name of the lineage.
Sangheili names are constructed from a series of parts, each of them with a specific or special meaning. The first name is a given name that is attained at birth, which persists until adulthood. As they come of age, they earn the right to carry a badge name. This name is made up of three parts: an adjectival descriptor, such as "fast" or "deadly," a crèche or family name, and the "-ee" suffix, an honorific indicating that the Sangheili is a military participant. Since the Great Schism, most Sangheili in the rebellious faction have removed their name of the '-ee' suffix. Most Sangheili have names with this kind of construction. It appears that additional titles may be given to those of very high rank, such as Xytan 'Jar Wattinree. Since "Jar" is not a part of the standard Sangheili name, it may be assumed that it denotes Xytan's status as Imperial Admiral, although this has yet to be confirmed. There is only one other known instance of this naming strucure: Voro 'Mantakree, who was given the additional title "Nar" to denote his status as a Fleet Master. Apart from the "-ee" suffix, the suffix "-ai" denotes swordsmanship, as with Bero 'Kusovai and Toha ‘Sumai.
- Main article: Sanghelios
Sanghelios is the homeworld of the Sangheili species with a population of 8.135 billion. Sanghelios is the fourth planet in a Triple Star System of stars Urs, Fied, and Joori. The planet has two Moons called Qikost and Suban. Many Forerunner artifacts exist on the planet, which are (or at least were) the topic of worship, as well as the cause of historical wars between the Sangheili and the San 'Shyuum before the formation of the Covenant. Sanghelios is divided into provinces, which are subdivided into states. Each state is owned by a lineage, and everyone born in that state adopts the lineage's name as a surname. Each state is controlled by a Kaidon, who is advised by Elders.
Sangheili are promoted based upon their skills, abilities, and the number of casualties they inflict upon their enemy. This is usually measured by scalps. A high-ranking Sangheili may have personally slaughtered thousands of enemies throughout his military career. The Sangheili armor becomes more complex as the rank increases, much like the Jiralhanae rank system. The order of Sangheili rank is: Minor, Officer/Major, Stealth Minor, Stealth Major, Ranger, Special Operations, Special Operations Officer, Special Operations Commander of the Covenant, Honor Guard, Honor Guard Ultra, Ultra, Zealot (Zealot covers Shipmaster, Fleet Master and Field master; the last two are equal in rank, shipmaster, however, is the lowest Zealot rank), General, Field Marshall, Supreme Commander, Imperial Admiral and Councilor. Details follow:
In Halo: Reach, many higher ranks such as Zealots, have a rare white-armor variant. They might be "Ultras" of their normal ranks, but do not have higher shielding or damage. It is possible that these white-armored Zealots are of noble birth or are aristocrats. It is also possible that this may be some sort of glitch or are similar to the BOBs.
|Councilor||The Councilors share power with the minor Prophets on the High Council. They are one of the highest ranks a Sangheili can achieve. During the events of Halo 2, they were taken to Delta Halo, where most were murdered by the Brutes, though a few were saved by other Sangheili and two were saved by Thel 'Vadam during the beginning of the Covenant Civil War. Only one Councilor is known by name: Soha 'Rolamee. Based on this, Councilors must be required to submit to a certain degree of military participation given 'Rolamee's '-ee' suffix. Identification: Silver armor, large helmet with bronze and steel inner color design.|
|Imperial Admiral||Revealed in Halo: Ghosts of Onyx, the Imperial Admiral's role is to command the whole fleet of the Covenant. Only one such Sangheili, Xytan 'Jar Wattinree, is known, and it is likely that there is only one at a time.|
|Supreme Commander||The Supreme Commander is the Covenant commander of a rather large or powerful fleet. In the Halo Graphic Novel, a Supreme Commander is depicted as clad in bright violet armor, with a long cloak that wraps around his shoulders. This particular Supreme Commander, Thel 'Vadam, was a friend and superior to SpecOps Leader Rtas 'Vadumee and would later become the Arbiter of the Covenant. Another supreme commander is Luro 'Taralumee of the third Fleet of Glorious Consequence.|
|Field Marshal||The Field Marshal rank falls under the Zealot-class, but appears to outrank regular Zealots. Besides leading large-scale ground operations, Field Marshal's are known to lead small strike teams composed of Zealot officers. The only appearances of a Field Marshal were during the Fall of Reach. Identification: Maroon/Purple Shade armor.|
- Fleet Master
- Field Master
- Ship Master
|Employed by the Ministry of Fervent Intercession, Sangheili Zealots serve as the admirals and generals of the Covenant military; Commanders of Battalions, Ships and Fleets. Field Masters lead armies; Ship Masters command ships; Fleet Masters command armadas. "Zealot" seems to be a general term, applying to all high ranking Sangheili. It is also possible that each rank has sub-ranks as well, since the rank of Field Marshal exists, though this is most likely superior to a Zealot. Identification: Golden or Maroon/Purple armor.|
|Honor Guard Ultra||Also known as the Lights of Sanghelios, Honor Guard Ultras are one of the most elite combat units of the Sangheili, named for the cluster of stars near the Sangheili home system. They are seen clad in white armor with glowing Honor Guard plates, and wield Energy Staves. They are not to be confused with Honor Guard Councilors, which are the creations of a glitch. Identification: Silver/Orange armor.|
|Sangheili Honor Guardsman||The Sangheili Honor Guardsmen are the personal guard of the High Council, in particular the Prophet Hierarchs, but they were later replaced by the Brutes. They wear ornate, ceremonial red and orange elaborately flanged armor which has a glow to it. Identification: Red/Orange/Yellow armor.|
|Special Operations Commander of the Covenant||The Special Operations Commander of the Covenant appears to be an even higher title than Field Master (perhaps around the same level as a Ship Master or Fleet Master), controlling all Spec Ops within the Covenant and taking missions personally from the Prophets. Also, in Halo 2 and Halo 3, the only Sangheili known to hold this rank is Rtas 'Vadum, who commands an Assault Carrier, a ship usually used by Prophets, showing his high rank. Identification: White armor (Do not be confused with Ultras).|
|Special Operations Officer||150px||Wearing pitch black armor, the Special Operations Officers, also known as commandos, lead Standard Special Operations Sangheili and even Special Operations Unggoy. They possess all of the skills and equipment of their underlings. Identification: Black armor.|
|Special Operations Sangheili||Special Operations Sangheili are extremely skilled fighters, sent in by the Covenant to accomplish the most dangerous and difficult of missions. They have superior accuracy, fire in longer bursts and have slightly stronger shielding than regular Sangheili. Most notably, SpecOps Sangheili operate in squads, are extremely skilled and are accurate grenade throwers. They are equipped with an Active camouflage system, but rarely use it, except to get into position without being noticed though they have also been known to sometimes operate similarly to Stealth Sanghelli using camo during battle. They can be seen leading Special Operation Grunts into battle, but only in Halo 2. Identification: Purplish armor in Halo 3, Dark Red armor in Halo: Reach.|
|Stealth Sangheili||The Stealth Sangheili are the Covenant's assassins and spies, and they use Active Camo technology as their main ability, as the Special Operations Sangheili do. They're often used on ambushes, which, with the help of their active camouflage technology, allow them to take down many enemies. Members of this rank wear unshielded light blue armor or shielded brown armor.|
|Sangheili Ranger||The Rangers are a voluntary group of Sangheili that work in the least forgiving environment of all: vacuum. Their helmets completely encase their heads, protecting them from the vacuum of space. They wear a variant of Sangheili armor optimized for zero-gravity, non-atmosphere combat, similar in appearance to Halo 3's Flight armor permutation. Their armor is cobalt in color, brighter than that of the Sangheili Minor. They can pose a substantial threat, due to their unique movement options. There are also variants that use their equipment to give them a tactical advantage planet side, flying above and shooting from the air, confusing and demoralizing the enemy, similar to a Drone, but with more power and fewer numbers. They are often the security of a carrier in space. Identification: Cyan armor in Halo 2, Light Grey armor in Halo: Reach, Jet Pack.|
|General||The highest-ranking military personnel employed by the Covenant among their groundside forces, this rank has only been observed during the Battle of Reach. They have a heavy amount of shields and an incredible amount of health. Identification: Golden/Orange armor.|
|Sangheili Ultra||These are the Covenant's Colonels and Captains, they command individual operations, and are identified with predominantly white armor.|
|Sangheili Major||This veteran Sangheili warrior holds the ranking equivalent of a UNSC Lieutenant. Overall they are more agile, more accurate and more aggressive than Minor Sangheili and rarely make tactical mistakes in combat. A single Major Sangheili can hold its own against an entire squad of UNSC Marines. They can be seen leading Grunts and Minor Sangheili into battle.|
|Sangheili Minor||The most common and least experienced Sangheili, Minor Sangheili are still extremely skilled warriors. They possess shields that are weaker than Sangheili Major's, and are slightly stronger then MJOLNIR Mark VI. They are the possible Covenant equivalent of a Sergeant in ranking. Along with Major Domo Sangheili, they often lead squads of Grunts into battle.|
In times of an extraordinary crisis, the High Council bestows the rank of the Arbiter on a single Sangheili. The most notable Arbiters are the ones of the Grunt Rebellion, the Battle of Jericho VII, The Taming of the Hunters, Ripa 'Moramee, and most notable of all, Thel 'Vadam, the Arbiter who stopped the Covenant Heretics on the Gas Mine and then aiding the UNSC and Covenant Separatists in the Great Schism. The armor of the Arbiter is an ancient version of the current Sangheili harness, which has primitive active camouflage that only last for a variably short period of time. The prophets have also used the position of Arbiter to send those due to be executed unceremoniously on so-called "suicide missions" so that they can regain some of their lost honor and die a glorious death in battle, such as the case of Thel 'Vadam.
Kaidons are leaders of particular States on Sanghelios, and the heads of their Lineages. They are advised by a council of Elders, and are selected by this council. They may also serve in the Covenant military, though Kaidon does not appear to be a military rank in itself.
Oracle Masters are apparently advisers to the High Council and to the High Prophets, specializing in intelligence gathering and religious advise to high ranking Prophets and the Sangheilian Councilors. They seem to be few in number, as only one has ever been mentioned. Their name can be considered linked to the Monitor's of Installations, known to the Covenant as Oracles, perhaps metaphorically suggesting their level of intellect on par with that of an Oracle. Little beyond this limited information and speculation is known of the rank.
The Aristocrats are important members of Sangheili society, allowed to wield Energy Swords. They are unable to marry, but allowed to mate with any female, married or unmarried, to "pass on the genes of sword fighting and the nobility." 
Ossoona is a special rank of Sangheili that are meant to be spies and are not properly equipped for heavy combat, instead meant for information gathering on human weapons and military data. They are also referred to as the "Eyes of the Prophets," because "at times the Sangheili had an unfortunate tendency to destroy everything in their path, leaving very little for their analysts to analyse". One of the major items of information the Ossoonas were tasked with discovering was the location of Earth. It is a temporary rank only granted to those who have attained at least the rank of Major Domo, the reason being that a Minor's lack of experience could cause them to be compromised (i.e. detected). It is not given to Sangheili of higher rank because they are considered too valuable and would rather engage in combat. One example of an Ossoona was an Sangheili named Isna 'Nosolee from the book Halo: The Flood.
The Ascetics are a special group of Sangheili made to ensure stability and purity. The Ascetic armor has been made to inflict a psychological fear by the use of special elements in the armor, such as the two "tusks" protruding from the helmet and bright, glowing orange eyes. They do not appear in the games apart from an armor permutation in Halo 3.
Commando is a Sangheili rank that was first observed during the Battle of Installation 04. It is a branch of the Special Warfare Group based upon pre-contact ground forces. Commando Sangheili possess hardened communication gear and up-link capable equipment that an ordinary Sangheili wouldn't have access to. Their armor is streamlined for better maneuverability in close encounters. The armor is lightweight and advanced internal equipment increase the overall effectiveness of an individual Sangheili making them more deadly.
- Prison Guards
Prison guards are only seen in Halo Wars: Genesis and appear to serve as the security in a Sangheili prison.
Weapons Masters are Sangheili engineers who maintain and improve equipment used by the Covenant.
Heretic Rank Structure
Heretic Leader - Heretic Red/Thruster Pack: Sesa 'Refumee, the leader of the Heretics. The armor he wears is modified from standard combat harnesses, featuring body pieces with modified shapes and designs in shades of red, lack of helmet, and is upgraded with a Sangheili Ranger's thruster pack. This gave him a unique advantage in combat, but it was not enough for him to defeat the Arbiter, who slew him in the Battle of the Gas Mine.
Heretic Sangheili Major - Heretic Gold: Work as commanders of the Heretic Unggoy and Heretic Sangheili Minors. They wear gold-colored Heretic armor, and are equipped with Covenant Carbines and Sentinel Beams. A select few wield Energy Swords. While not so skilled in the Energy Swords use as Sangheili Honor Guards, Councilors, Zealots or even Ultras, they are quite dangerous due to their crafty flanking maneuvering and teamwork with other Heretics.
Heretic Sangheili Minor - Heretic Brown: Group commanders of the Heretic Unggoy. They wear brown Heretic armor, and wield Covenant Carbines, and occasionally, Sentinel Beams. They are excellent shots, far superior to normal Sangheili Minors. They are also skilled Banshee pilots, and fly in pairs, amplifying their effectiveness.
- The dialogue spoken by the Sangheili of Halo: Combat Evolved was made by reversing and slowing sound clips of Sergeant Johnson. "Wort! Wort! Wort!" is the reversed phrase, "Go! Go! Go!". With the IWHBYD Skull turned on in Halo 3, they will occasionally say their trademark, "Wort! Wort! Wort!".
- Jason Jones at first wanted the Sangheili to have tails, but Shi Kai Wang talked him out of it by arguing that the Sangheili would look too animalistic, as opposed to being an intelligent race. An additional point was that when the Sangheili sit, the only place their tails could go was folded between their legs, creating a seriously awkward appearance.
- Sangheili culture is comparable to that of the ancient Spartans of Humanity's past. Rank is achieved by success, and much of their lives revolve around war.
- The Sangheili culture also seems to be based on the Yautja alien species from the film series Predator. Anatomically the two share similarities as well, such as the split mouth, head shape (somewhat (Elongated skull, split mandibles, no (visible) nose, etc.)), strength and reptilian appearance. Both species also have a very defined sense of honor and respect to their enemies as well. Also, they both use energy based weaponry, pretruding blades on their wrists, a combat harness, and an optical camouflage system.
- In Halo 2 if a player who's skin is that of an Elite, when the player activates a energy sword, they strike a combat pose like their AI bretheren.
- Sangheili have 46 teeth.
- It is mentioned in Ghosts of Onyx that Sangheili would rather die with their weapons out of energy than pick up fully loaded human weapons, yet they show no shame when they obtain them in Halo 2 and Halo 3. They will sometimes even thank the player when handed powerful human weapons, such as the Rocket Launcher. This is likely because they are Covenant Separatists, and no longer view humans as Heretics, nor their weapons 'unclean'. But the case is not so for the Halo 2 scenario.
- In Halo: Reach, if the player chooses to play as the Elites in Firefight and has higher-ranking armor than the other Elites around him/her, they will talk to the player in their language. They will sometimes also follow the player, this has also been seen with other species such as Skirmishers, Grunts, and Sometimes Jackals.
- Although the player is not able to dual wield, Elites are occasionally seen dual wielding Plasma Rifles in Halo: Reach, the most common Sangheili to duel wield is the Sangheili Ultra.
- The Sangheili has many head characteristics of the Xenomorph from the Alien Series, especially the elongated skull.
- In Halo: The Fall of Reach, a Sangheili is said to have green blood when it has been purple in all game appearances to date.
- They are, fittingly, the very first Covenant species the player encounters in most of the Halo games: when you make your way to the bridge of the Pillar of Autumn in Halo: Combat Evolved, at the trial of the Thel 'Vadamee in Halo 2, in the opening cut scene of Halo 3, and the first Covenant "seen" in Halo: Reach at the beginning of Winter Contingency is an invisible Elite. In Halo Wars, they are seen in the first cutscene during a battle on Harvest fighting against UNSC Marines, but are not first seen in Halo 3: ODST.
- There has been a running inconsistency in the franchise regarding when humans first encountered the Sangheili. According to Halo: The Fall of Reach, Elites had not been deployed to combat against the UNSC prior to the Fall of Reach when John-117 encountered one above Reach. However, this has been abandoned in newer sources, most of which depict Sangheili being active in the field for most of the Human-Covenant War. Finally, the project page for Halo: Reach confirms that Elites have been observed in the field since the First Battle of Harvest in 2525.
- In Halo: Combat Evolved, the Sangheili have three different types of helmet appearances. One is the classical shark-like helmet with the pointed cone at the peak of the helmet. The second is slightly different with a wide, crest-like and curved upper piece on the helmet instead of the classical conical helmet. The third is known as in the game code as "Elite special", stealth elites, the gold zealots and the special operations officers all have a helmet very, very similar in shape to the "shark-like" helmet. And with close inspection can it be noticed that it is slightly different in shape to the "shark" helmet.
- An exclusive set of Sangheili Officer armor is included with the Limited and Legendary editions of Halo: Reach.
- In Halo 3, Sangheili pupils turn to vertical slits upon death, whereas they are circular and centered when they are alive. This is because they have horizontal eye-lids, which can be seen when they blink, and this is simply their eyes closed while dead.
- In Halo: Reach, the Sangheili HUD compass has Covenant markings instead of cardinal directions.
- In Halo: Reach, if you activate night vision while aiming at an dead elite's eyes, the eyes will glow.
- In Halo: Reach, many Sangheili ranks have more ornate and different armor than their Halo Trilogy counterparts. Perhaps after the Fall of Reach, the Covenant gave Elites less ornate armor because it was easy to spot high-ranking officers, due to their special armor.
- In Halo: Reach, when a Sangheili wields an Energy Sword, it slouches.
- In Halo: Reach Firefight, the Sangheili night vision is blue.
- In Halo 3, although the Sangheili and Humans are united towards the end of the Human-Covenant War, they still refer to John-117 as "Demon". It is unknown if that the Sangheili don't know exactly what to call him, or they are trying to show a sign of respect.
- In Halo: Reach, Sangheili player models feature an aim-assist system for the Plasma Pistol, Needler, Plasma Rifle and Plasma Repeater. The aim-assist projects a second reticule which leads a target, much like that of the Sabre. The second reticule is nearly identical to that of the Focus Rifle.
- Elites are sometimes referred to as Echo Tangos, which would be the military form of ET, another name for them (much like Bravo Kilos (Baby Kongs) for Brutes).
- When playing in Firefight as an Elite, AI controlled Elites will speak to the player in their own language, the player still cannot understand them as there is no known translation.
- Only higher ranked Sangheili are allowed to wield and use Energy Swords.
- In Halo: Reach, the eyes of a Sangheili no longer glow during gameplay.
- In Halo: Reach, a Sangheili will throw an Energy Sword in the air when it picks one up, unlike the Sangheili in Halo 2 and Halo 3, who simply pick it up and turn it on.
- If one were to examine the model of any Sangheili that has its face showing in Halo: Reach, with two or more players signed in on the same console, the teeth and eyes of the Sangheili will have mysteriously disappeared. The cavities where the teeth once resided in are still visible, however.
- In Halo: Combat Evolved, mysterious (silver-blue shine with black secondary armor color, with standard minor armor) elite corpses can been seen in various levels, but are never seen alive and in combat, or anywhere else for that matter.
- Several previews of Halo: Combat Evolved Anniversary gameplay have shown that Elites will receive a strong graphical overhaul, giving them a much more predatory and intimidating appearance than previous games.
- After the Great Schism, the Sangheili employed Unggoy and, ironically, some Jiralhanae.
- On Legendary difficulty, it takes 7 melee hits to completely kill an Elite, which could be a possible 7 reference.
- Sangheili children, and adults, used Arums to learn patience.
- According to the Halo 4 article in the May issue of Game Informer magazine, Elites will not be playable in Halo 4 multiplayer.
- In Halo: Glasslands, it states that Sangheili smell faintly of leather.
- Elites are about 7 feet tall, which may be a possible 7 reference.
- Elite blood smells like fresh tar.
- Keith David - Thel 'Vadam (Arbiter)
- Robert Davi - Rtas 'Vadum (Special Operations Commander in Halo 2, Ship Master in Halo 3)
- David Scully - Sangheili (in Halo: Combat Evolved, Halo 2, Halo 3, and Halo: Reach)
- Miguel Ferrer - Sesa 'Refumee (Heretic Leader)
- Norm Woodel - Sangheili (in Halo 2)
- Ron Hippe - Sangheili (in Halo 3)
- David Sobolov - Ripa 'Moramee (Arbiter), and Elites (in Halo Wars)
- ↑ One Sangheili mentioned "even the smallest Humans hurl themselves against our defenses with honor. If only the Unggoy were as committed." This shows that humans had earned the grudging respect of a few Sangheili. They claimed variously that Humans were "tenacious", that their technology is "limited, but...useful", that their battle techniques are "impressive", and that they are "excellent strategists".
- It is stated in the novel Halo: The Fall of Reach that humans only encountered the Sangheili late in the war, around 2552. Yet they have appeared chronologically several times before 2552, for example in Halo Wars, which occurs in 2531, or Halo 4: Forward Unto Dawn, which takes place in 2525. This is likely a continuity error on the developpers' behalf.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Halo: The Essential Visual Guide, page 61
- ↑ Halo: Evolutions - Essential Tales of the Halo Universe, Headhunters
- ↑ Halo: Ghosts of Onyx, page 189 - "Sangheili: the Elite name for their race"
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Bestiarum
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Bungie.net: Halo: Reach: Enemies - Elite
- ↑ The Official Halo 2 Strategy Guide, page 43
- ↑ Halo 2, Delta Halo
- ↑ Conversations from the Universe, Sangheili Conversation
- ↑ Halo: Evolutions - From the Office of Dr. William Arthur Iqbal
- ↑ Halo Wars: Genesis, page 7
- ↑ Halo Graphic Novel, page ??
- ↑ Halo: Contact Harvest, page 201
- ↑ Halo: Ghosts of Onyx, page 226
- ↑ Halo: First Strike, page 209
- ↑ Halo: First Strike, page 305
- ↑ Halo: The Fall of Reach, page 106
- ↑ Halo: Ghosts of Onyx, page 194
- ↑ Bungie.net: The Covenant Primer
- ↑ Halo: The Cole Protocol, page 170, 195-196
- ↑ Halo: Contact Harvest, page 151
- ↑ Halo: The Cole Protocol, page 170
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 Halo: The Cole Protocol, page 143
- ↑ Halo: The Cole Protocol, page 138
- ↑ Halo: The Cole Protocol, page 93
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 Halo: The Cole Protocol, page 89
- ↑ Halo: The Flood, page 5
- ↑ Halo Encyclopedia, page 126
- ↑ Halo: Combat Evolved: Sybex Official Strategies & Secrets, page 48
- ↑ Halo Encyclopedia, page 125
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 Halo: The Essential Visual Guide, page 60
- ↑ Halo 2, The Arbiter
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 32.2 Halo: The Flood, Page 28
- ↑ The Art of Halo, page 23
- ↑ File:Sangheili teeth.jpg
- ↑ Halo: The Fall of Reach, page 327
- ↑ Halo: Ghosts of Onyx "Page 343"
- Sangheili in the Games
- Sangheili Personal Energy Shield
- Dead Shielded Elite
- Jiralhanae (rival)
- Sangheili Armed Forces