The Battle of Vodin was a battle between the Covenant and the UNSC in the year 2532. The battle lasted for about 2 days, Initially the Covenant infiltrated the colony with a stealth ship for reconnaissance to make way for the larger invasion.
While most details of the actual battle are unknown, it is known that the Covenant and the UNSC fought in orbit around the planet.
Vodin suffered severe damage but was still habitable, even though the colonists were trapped for 10 years on the planet without UNSC support.
In reality, Randall-037 actually crash landed into the ocean and survived the battle. After the battle the surviving colonists revived him and eventually settled in and married one of the colonists.